The U.S. Dollar is the World’s Reserve Currency -Does it Really Matter?

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The short answer is yes.  America has advantages with the U.S. dollar as the world’s reserve currency that other nations, such as China, would love to enjoy. Since the U.S. dollar is the medium of exchange in worldwide transactions, the U.S. pays for transactions in its own currency.  Other countries are required to exchange their currency into the U.S. dollar which results in additional transaction fees with each exchange. This means they will pay slightly more for the same commodity than the U.S. would pay. This reserve currency status also allows Americans to borrow at advantageous rates because our dollar is in a higher demand.  Last but not least, the U.S. can always print more dollars to pay its global bills.

We hear on occasion of appeals that America must go back to the Gold standard. Although I am not opposed to this idea; I do not see this happening. If we went back to the Gold standard monetary system, the participating nations would lose their ability to print more money to pay their bills.  I do see the possibility that the world reserve currency may actually become a basket of different currencies which would include Gold.  If you do not understand by now that Gold is a currency and not a commodity, you should. Central banks around the world began exchanging U.S. dollars for Gold back in late 2009; in 2011, they have only picked up the pace. I think the direction is that reserves for currency will be a possible basket of U.S. dollars, Gold, perhaps euros and maybe remnibi. You cannot count the Chinese out; they intend to be a global financial power.

As we watched the price of Gold break $1800 per ounce recently, many people directly attribute this to the loss of faith in government-backed paper money – more accurately, it is a loss of faith in paper money by their own central banks! What do they know that perhaps we should know?   

 By Peter LaTona, Vice President of Sales at APMEX

Balance your portfolio with Gold today.

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Gold has moved opposite of the S&P 500 since February. The chart above gives a graphic example of the negative correlation between Gold and one of the other asset classes, stocks. Since February, economic stress in Europe and the U.S. has pulled the S&P 500 down while Gold moved higher.

After the Democrats and the Republicans came to an agreement and prevented a default on our nation’s debt, conventional wisdom says the market would boost as business and investor confidence increased. However, today’s reality is that the stocks ended low in the face of uncertainty over the debt deal. The terms include a $400 billion increase in the debt limit immediately, a $500 billion increase this fall, immediate spending cuts of $900 billion, and the creation of a Congressional commission to identify another $1.2 trillion in spending cuts.  Former Under Secretary of Commerce Robert Shapiro described these terms as “a mindless way to run a government.” J.J. Kinahan, managing director with TD Ameritrade, was quoted as saying, “Debt deal or no debt deal, we have some fundamental problems in the economy that we’re not dealing with.”

Monday’s extremely disappointing manufacturing report and last week’s revision of first-quarter growth estimates caused this change in focus. More bad news for the economy was released Tuesday; even though incomes rose in June, consumer spending fell (along with consumer prices). With most economists’ expectations of a credit rating downgrade from the top-notch AAA rating, stock futures were down and investors flocked to safe havens including Gold, which hit new record highs this week before falling victim to the massive selloff affecting all markets.

The stock markets are viewing a recession as likely as prices have continued to decline; stock prices hit their lowest points in almost two years. The concern has driven a number of investors to Treasuries, which is causing inflation concerns with the Swiss Franc and Japanese Yen. Mike Ryan, Chief Investment Strategist at UBS Wealth Management Americas, said Thursday, “The mood right now is gloomy…The burden of proof is for better data that show the economy is not falling into recession. Tomorrow’s payroll report is crucial. If we see another disappointment, the stock market will have significant downside from here.”

The highly anticipated payrolls report was released this morning; it indicated an increase of 117,000 jobs in July. The unemployment rate fell .1% down to 9.1%. These numbers were better than expected which finally brought some relief to Wall Street after two days of tension. Gold gave up early gains amid the news but one analyst says that South Korea’s recent purchase of Gold signals that it’s still not too late to buy Gold. An executive of one company stated that South Korea’s purchase is “significant, as it represents the first purchase of Gold by the East Asian country in over a decade. It would seem South Korea has joined the ranks of those countries that have lost faith in the U.S. dollar … it is no coincidence that many of these central banks are from emerging-market economies. Many of these countries have experienced the grim reality of enduring a currency crisis first-hand.”


Spot Gold prices opened this week at $1,628.00. The high was on Thursday, Aug. 4th at $1,684.90, while the low for the week occurred on Monday, Aug. 1st at $1,608.20. Gold ended the week up $22.30 at $1,650.30. This week, the most popular Gold bullion products were 2011 Gold American Eagles, 1 oz. Pamp Suisse Gold Bars, and 2011 1 oz. Gold Maple Leafs.

Spot Silver prices opened this week at $39.95. Silver reached a high of $42.30 on Thursday, Aug. 4th, while this week’s low for Silver occurred on Friday, Aug. 5th at $37.56. Silver ended the week down $1.93 at $38.02. The most popular Silver products on this week were 2011 Silver American Eagles, 2011 Silver Maple Leafs, 1 oz. Silver Buffalo Rounds and 10 oz. APMEX Silver Bars.

Spot Platinum prices opened this week at $1,781.90 and ended the week down $66.90 at $1,715.00. Popular Platinum products this week included, 1 oz. Platinum Bars, 1/10 oz. Platinum American Eagles, and 1 oz. Platinum American Eagles.

Spot Palladium prices opened this week at $832.30 and ended the week down $90.30 at $742.00. Palladium investors preferred 1 oz. Pamp Suisse Palladium Bars and Palladium Canadian Maple Leafs this week.


Platinum American Eagle Coins

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Released in 1997, the Platinum American Eagle coin is the only investment-grade platinum coin from the U.S. Mint. Since its introduction, the Platinum Eagle has become one of the world’s most widely-traded platinum bullion coins because of the patriotic design and platinum value. The obverse design celebrates freedom and opportunity with a portrait of the Statue of Liberty.  The reverse design is unique in that it changes each year; strength and security are portrayed in the theme of the American eagle. 
APMEX features the Platinum American Eagle coins in 1 oz., 1/2 oz., 1/4 oz., and 1/10 oz. denominations as well as uncirculated, certified, and proof conditions. Offering a wide selection of platinum products, APMEX can help you establish a platinum portfolio. Eligible for placement in precious metals IRAs, Platinum American Eagles can act as building blocks for investment portfolios. Start building your Platinum investment today!

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Should the Governments Buy GOLD?


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The World Gold Council reports that the world’s central banks hold roughly 29,000 tons of Gold. Photo by Richard Perry/ New York Times.

 (Article reprinted from The New York Times,  Aug. 2, 2011.)



Private investors and central banks have scrambled in recent years to stock up on gold. This summer, they drove the price over $1,600 an ounce for the first time ever.

For millennia, people have killed and died in pursuit of gold. In the recent downturn, so many investors have been eager to buy gold that it is sold in vending machines. Governments are as captivated by it as individuals are: for nearly a century, many nations’ central banks have stashed hoards of gold bullion in a vault at the New York Federal Reserve.

When asked recently why central banks hold gold rather than, for instance, diamonds, Ben Bernanke said “tradition.” Given the long history of humans considering gold valuable, does it make sense to continue this tradition, or should central banks focus on other assets with more intrinsic value?

Debater 1:   It Had to Be Gold

By Sanat K. Kumar, who spoke to “Planet Money” about gold in February,  is chairman of the Department of Chemical Engineering at Columbia University.

Anyone trying to think of some other element or compound to take the role of gold should consider why it has been used as a currency since time immemorial. If we are looking for something to be useful as currency, we need a commodity that meets a few requirements: First, its composition must be easy to define. It should also be relatively immutable, but not so inert that it cannot be purified into the form that is acceptable as an asset. It should be rare but not so rare that it is impossible to find. It is easy to see how ancient civilizations came to consider gold a magical, mythical material: it satisfied all these demands.

Gold is relatively unreactive, but it has a low enough melting point that it could be processed easily by past civilizations. In contrast, something like platinum, which is also relatively inert chemically, has a melting point of 3,000 degrees Celsius. This made platinum almost impossible to process until relatively recently. Similarly, gold is rare in the earth’s crust, but there is enough of it to go around.

Still, times have changed. Let us consider the issue today: Processing is no longer a problem. We can readily purify elements like platinum, rhodium and others, or we can synthesize any desired compound to practically any degree of purity. The issue of contamination is also no longer germane.

Thus the only modern requirements for an asset are rarity and immutability — and a suite of compounds and elements would qualify. So gold is no longer the one and only thing that could be used as an asset. Indeed, Ben Bernanke is correct — the argument for it is simply tradition. The value placed on gold comes from an emotional attachment handed down to us from our ancestors.

Debater 2:  A Proven Asset

By Ron Paul, a United States representative from Texas who is running for president for the third time, is the founder of Campaign for Liberty. He is the author of “The Revolution: A Manifesto” and “End the Fed.”

No asset has intrinsic value. An object is only valuable insofar as it is able to satisfy the wants and needs of individuals, and its value is determined by the subjective judgments of individuals. No other commodity has been as universally valued over time and across as many societies as gold.

Gold satisfies all the properties of money. It is durable, portable and easily divisible into bars and coins that share uniform properties. It is easily recognizable through visual, tactile, chemical and other means. Gold’s value and purchasing power are stable over time, as its supply grows slowly and it cannot be created ad infinitum as paper or digital currency can be.

Because of these properties, gold has always been considered an ideal store of value and medium of exchange, and central banks have always sought to hold it because it is the ultimate monetary backstop. When society and the monetary system break down, even if nothing else is accepted as a medium of exchange, gold still will be.

The Federal Reserve does not actually own gold; it only holds gold certificates as an asset. It is the Treasury Department that claims ownership of United States gold reserves. Historically, gold itself circulated as money, in the form of coins. Paper currency began to circulate for the sake of convenience, but these were only promissory notes that could be redeemed in “lawful money,” i.e. gold, on demand. Once the use of paper currency was established and most gold was held in bank vaults, the government seized the gold and left the people holding paper that could no longer be redeemed for gold. The paper currency was immediately devalued by 40 percent, reducing Americans’ purchasing power by an equal amount.

I would prefer to see the government not hold the gold it does. It should be returned to the people from whom it was taken. There is no need for the government to hoard gold or to keep gold in vaults as backing for currency; gold itself should be the currency that circulates.


Debater 3:  Gold Fever Is a Symptom of Inflation Fears

By Allan H. Meltzer, a visiting scholar at the American Enterprise Institute and the Allan H. Meltzer University Professor of Political Economy at the Tepper School of Business at Carnegie Mellon University, is the author of “History of the Federal Reserve, Volume I: 1913-1951” and “Volume II: 1951-1986.”

Gold was money through most of our history, although after 1934 it was restricted to settlements between central banks. Its role in international payment settlements was further restricted in 1968, and it ended in 1971 when President Richard M. Nixon embargoed gold sales and floated the dollar exchange rate. After 1971, several central banks sold some of their gold stocks because the only revenue from holding gold is the speculative return if the gold price rises. After all, gold is no longer money, and holding it earns no interest.

Gold is a commodity with a unique history. It allows individuals to readily transport large monetary values, so it has long been favored by refugees. People who fear inflation or confiscation of wealth buy gold, expecting it will be stable or rise enough to protect the holder. That was true for European refugees in the 1930s, and French and Indian citizens have long been famous for holding gold.

Today, uncertainty about the future financing of large U.S. budget deficits and inflationary Federal Reserve policy are increasing the demand for gold. People in China and other nations with inflationary policies are also stocking up on it. Saudi Arabian sheiks protect part of their wealth by holding gold.

The modern frenzy for gold is a symptom of a fundamental concern: inflation. The world would benefit from an agreement by major central banks in Europe, Japan and the United States to maintain zero inflation. China could join after it removed its exchange controls. That agreement would allow other countries to fix their exchange rates and “import” low inflation. The world would have both more stable prices and more stable exchange rates.

The unrestrained U.S. monetary policy since we abandoned gold has not provided stability.

(End of reprint)

Follow the example of the central banks around the world; add Gold to your investment portfolio. APMEX is one of the most trusted and largest dealers of Gold and precious metals. APMEX maintains one of the world’s largest selections of precious metal products, including the popular Gold American Eagle Coins and the Gold Canadian Maple Leaf Coins.   

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Weekly Recap 7.22.11

All eyes were focused this week on the European debt crisis and the U.S. debt ceiling discussions.  While there was serious progress made on one of these issues, it’s certainly debatable whether any real progress was made on the other.

Following a day-long meeting between German Chancellor Angela Merkel and French President Nicolas Sarkozy on Wednesday, the European Union leaders approved a bailout plan for Greece.  Details of the European Union’s bailout of Greece have emerged, and the package is being seen as stronger than expected.  Fitch Ratings said it will declare Greece to be in “restricted default,” however this was an expected consequence, according to EU leaders.  The deal is expected to stave off any contagion to other countries in the euro zone.

In the U.S., every time progress appeared to be made, it stopped dead in its tracks.  A major deficit plan was agreed upon by the bipartisan “Gang of Six” in the Senate. This deal would reduce federal deficits and is seen as a major step forward in debt ceiling negotiations. President Obama had publicly backed the plan, but he has since backed off.  House Republicans voted this week in favor of a campaign to reinforce their budget views and eliminate the need for compromise. The slogan for this campaign is “Cut, Cap and Balance.” A bill the Republicans are promoting this week would condition any increase in the debt limit on immediate spending cuts, set caps on future outlays and require a congressional passage of a balanced-budget amendment to the Constitution. Obama has specifically said that he will veto this bill if it passes the Senate.

President Obama is now said to be working on a major deficit-reduction package that includes $3 trillion in cuts while not including immediate revenue increases.  This is a sticking point to Democrats, who are said to be upset with the plan.  Obama would have to convince his fellow Democrats that this is the right deal, and he will need to do it quickly; the U.S. is now a mere 11 days away from defaulting on its debts.

Credit rating agencies were in the headlines frequently this week.  On top of the situation in Greece, the agencies came out in force to warn of the consequences of a U.S. default.  Standard & Poor’s reiterated its position Thursday that if the U.S. government misses its scheduled debt payments, it could cut the U.S. credit rating as early as August. There is some tie-in to both raising the debt ceiling and balancing the budget that S&P needs to see to avoid that type of action. The trickle-down effect could be catastrophic to a number of companies, including Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, plus the sovereign debt rating and the insurance industry. Senator McConnell’s “back-up plan” that had been discussed as a fall-back option has just been discredited by Moody’s as not doing enough to balance the budget and would still put the U.S. on a path for a negative credit outlook.

Gold hit a record high Monday, and has spent most of the week around the $1,600 mark.  Silver hit over $40 for the first time since May, and remains in that range.

Weekly Precious Metal Spot Prices

Spot Gold prices opened this week at $1,591.10. The all-time record high was on Tuesday, July, 19th at $1,610.70, while the low for the week occurred on Wednesday, July 20th at $1,581.10. Gold ended the week up $9.50 at $1,600.60. This week, the most popular Gold bullion products were 2011 Gold American Eagles, 1 oz. Pamp Suisse Gold Bars, and 2011 1 oz. Gold Maple Leafs.

Spot Silver prices opened this week at $39.04. Silver reached a high of $40.88 on Tuesday, July 19th,  while this week’s low for Silver occurred on Wednesday, July 20th at $38.22. Silver ended the week up $1.12 at $40.16. The most popular Silver products on this week were 2011 Silver American Eagles, 2011 Silver Maple Leafs, 1 oz. Silver Buffalo Rounds and 10 oz. APMEX Silver Bars.

Spot Platinum prices opened this week at $1,758.00 and ended the week up $41.00 at $1,799.00. Popular Platinum products this week included, 1 oz. Platinum Bars, 1/10 oz. Platinum American Eagles, and 1 oz. Platinum American Eagles.

Spot Palladium prices opened this week at $783.80 and ended the week up $24.10 at $807.90. Palladium investors preferred 1 oz. Pamp Suisse Palladium Bars and Palladium Canadian Maple Leafs this week at

America the Beautiful 2-Coin Set

America the Beautiful, Silver, Glacier, Gettysburg

This two-coin 2011 America the Beautiful  set contains the five ounce Gettysburg National Military Park coin and the five ounce Glacier National Park coin.

The America the Beautiful Silver bullion program marks a significant change for the U.S. Mint’s coin offerings with the introduction of the larger format of five Troy ounces of Silver bullion. The entire 56-coin collection will display the beauty and diversity of America’s National Parks and sites. The coins will be issued over the course of 12 years. Designs and inscriptions are duplicates of the currently circulating commemorative quarters.

The Gettysburg National Military Park coin shows the Soldiers National Monument, which stands in the center of the Soldiers National Cemetery. This monument was constructed to honor the soldiers who fell at the Battle of Gettysburg in July of 1863. The statue now stands guard over the 6,000 American soldiers laid to rest at Gettysburg.

The Glacier National Park coin depicts the majestic glacier-carved Mount Reynolds. The mountain goat in the foreground reminds us of the diverse wildlife fostered within Glacier National Park. Glacier National Park obtained federal protected status on Feb. 22, 1897 and consists of 1,000,000 acres.

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Forget 6,000 Years of History; Bernanke Says Gold Isn’t Money

Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke took to the stand in Congress on Wednesday to defend the Fed’s Quantitative Easing programs.  Rep. Ron Paul (R-TX) asked Bernanke point-blank whether Gold was money.  Bernanke responded with a simple, “No.”  For such a well-respected chairman to answer so flatly regarding Gold, one would imagine Gold prices had tanked.  Just the opposite occurred- Gold closed at a record high on Wednesday, over $1,580/oz.  So, maybe the question goes a little deeper.  What constitutes money?

Generally speaking, there are three main functions of money.  The first is as a medium of exchange.  Rep. Paul went on to explain to Bernanke that Gold has been used as a currency for some 6,000 years.  As economies developed throughout history, representative money such as the Gold standard gradually replaced commodity money.

The second function is as a unit of account.  Since the world went off the Gold standard in 1971, fiat currencies serve as the unit of account.  Central banks are permitted to print money as they see fit or as policymakers dictate.  They then use the paper money as a measurement of value for things like goods, services, and assets.

The third function of money is as a store of value.  According to the World Gold Council, “Gold has maintained its value in terms of real purchasing power … Despite price fluctuations, Gold has consistently reverted to its historic purchasing power parity with other commodities and intermediate products.”  In other words, Gold (historically) has protected wealth.  Central banks are seeing this.  In 2010, they became net buyers of Gold for the first time in over twenty years.  In the first half of 2011, they bought more than all of 2010.

Maybe Bernanke answered a question correctly.  Maybe he thought the question was something along the lines of, “Is Gold the same thing as the sheets of paper you and the Fed have decided to insert into the economy?”

By Ryan Schwimmer, APMEX Account Manager


Gold As An Insurance Policy

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Are you intrigued about the reasons why investors are purchasing more Gold? A primary reason for this interest in Gold is its role as an insurance policy. Possibly because no one has ever defaulted on Gold, it is considered an insurance policy that will pay out when needed.  The following are examples of how Gold reinforces that belief and how it provides financial security and protection against uncertainty:

  • The fragile economic recovery we are experiencing in the U.S.
  • The high level of debt in our cities, states and federal government.
  • The fragile economic recovery in the European Union, Russia, Japan and many other parts of the world.
  • The sovereign debt crisis in Greece, Portugal and Ireland that threatens to spread into Italy and Spain and eventually the entire European Union.
  • The geopolitical tensions in the Middle East; India and Pakistan; North & South Korea and elsewhere
  • The volatile currency markets. Even Central Banks are becoming less reliant on paper money and trading it for gold.
  • The devaluation of the U.S. dollar.
  • Investors try to deal in financial markets which move at the speed of light, and where “flash crashes” occur and one year later can still not be explained.
  • Inflation in the U.S. and other countries where governments choose to print more money to cover their debts.
  • Black Swan Events. The recent earthquake, tsunami and nuclear reactor problems devastated Japan. Unexpected events with severe negative consequences cannot be predicted. We know they will come but we cannot anticipate the time and locations.

Gold holds value in times of uncertainty where your other investments do not. There is an old saying, “Put 5-10% of your money in Gold and 90-95% into the three primary asset classes; then every night go to bed and hope Gold prices go down because that means everything else just went up.” 

Geoff Varner, APMEX Account Manager

Weekly Recap 7.1.11

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Happy Independence Day, America!

As U.S. Independence day approaches, the American debt crisis is becoming the main focus of the news. The attention on the European Union’s problem was lessened due to recent developments in Greece making a bailout seem more likely. Greece and the euro zone crisis has not resolved, but the shift in focus probably reflects a sentiment that the American debt crisis is more imminent. 

The week started with the bipartisan meetings on debt ceiling already fractured after republicans walked out on Friday, citing disagreement over tax increases.  On Monday, President Obama met with leaders from both parties individually in an attempt to restart talks.  The deadline to pass an agreement to lift the debt ceiling is August 2, at which time the U.S. would have a bond payment due without the means to pay it.  This would result in default, which most analysts agree, would push the U.S. back into a recession.  Standard & Poor’s, a ratings agency, said they will lower the rating on U.S. debt to “D,” the lowest possible, if an agreement to raise the debt ceiling isn’t reached in time.

Things didn’t look much better for the U.S. on Tuesday.  Republicans and Democrats became further entrenched in their respective camps.  Things were on the upswing for Greece however, as France and Germany pushed for a “Plan B” for Greek debt in an effort to prolong a default and allow themselves as long as possible to prepare for it.  A default still looks inevitable. Also, the IMF got a new chief, Christine Lagarde.  This announcement follows the arrest in New York of Dominique Strauss-Kahn, former head of the IMF.

Greece’s parliament passed new austerity measures on Wednesday. This move was demanded by EU members and by the IMF in exchange for another round of bailout aid.  Some experts remain skeptical of the final outcome, and hold the view that a default is still inevitable.

QE2 officially ended on Thursday.  The weekly jobless numbers were released and the report showed an extremely slight improvement in the unemployment situation; the data only showed a decrease of 1,000 unemployed workers.  Also on Thursday, protests sprang up in Egypt.  Thousands of people, mostly youths, took to the streets of Cairo, were frustrated at the slow pace of court cases against top officials of the previous regime.

The Institute for Supply Management released data on Friday showing an increase in manufacturing productions, easing fears of a double dip recession.  The stock market had a strong positive response with major indexes posting impressive three percent gains for the week.  The dollar also strengthened which brought the price of metals down somewhat.

Spot Gold prices opened this week at $1,501.40. The high during the week was on Thursday, June 30th  at $1,514.80, while the low for the week occurred on Friday, July 1st at $1,478.30. Gold ended the week down $13.70 at $1,487.70. This week, the most popular Gold bullion products were 2011 Gold American Eagles, 1 oz. Pamp Suisse Gold Bars, and 2011 1 oz. Gold Maple Leafs.

Spot Silver prices opened this week at $34.43. Silver reached a high of $35.16 on Thursday, June 30th while this week’s low for Silver occurred on Monday, June 27th at $33.38. Silver ended the week down $0.50 at $33.93. The most popular Silver products on this week were 2011 Silver American Eagles, 2011 Silver Maple Leafs, 1 oz. Silver Buffalo Rounds and 10 oz. APMEX Silver Bars.

Spot Platinum prices opened this week at $1,678.40 and ended the week up $42.10 at $1,720.50. Popular Platinum products this week included, 1 oz. Platinum Bars, 1/10 oz. Platinum American Eagles, and 1 oz. Platinum American Eagles.

Spot Palladium prices opened this week at $734.30 and ended the week up $27.70 at $762.00. Palladium investors preferred 1 oz. Pamp Suisse Palladium Bars and Palladium Canadian Maple Leafs this week at


Featured Product of the Week:    1 Ounce Silver Britannia Coins

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In 1997, the Royal Mint produced one-ounce Silver Britannia coins issued only as proofs with a mintage of 20,000. Created to appeal to both collectors and investors alike, the design of the Silver Britannia coin pays tribute to British nationalism and pride.

The obverse of the 1997 issue of the silver coin features the “Third Portrait” used on British decimal bullion coins dated from 1985 to 1997. In 1998, the obverse design of the Silver Britannia coin changed to depict the “Fourth Portrait,” a more mature likeness of Queen Elizabeth II. The reverse of the Silver Britannia coin illustrates the Standing Britannia, which appears in a horse-drawn chariot and resembles the Roman figure Boudica. The Standing Britannia image was originally engraved by G.W. De Saulles and used on the Gold Britannia coins for most of the issues following 1987. The Royal Mint seems to have settled on a pattern of alternating the classic Standing Britannia image and a special design on the reverse of the Silver bullion coins.

The Silver Britannia coins are also popular for their Silver value. With a face value of two pounds, the Silver bullion coins are .958 fine Silver, as opposed to the standard British sterling of .925 fine Silver. APMEX sells Silver Britannia coins in uncirculated and proof. APMEX makes it easy to buy the Silver Britannia coins of your choice by offering a wide selection of Silver Britannias and competitive Silver prices on all Silver bullion coins.